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Offbeat How Batteries Went From Primitive Power to Global Domination

16:01  13 june  2018
16:01  13 june  2018 Source:   bloomberg.com

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Question: How would you go about understanding resources for a different physical environment? Where and how did you learn this awesome primitive technology. The battery for this camera would probably last a few hours of filming but it would be best to take a few if your heading off for a few days.

The Cabal refers to a clique of global -scale plutocratic manipulators who use their immense wealth, prestige and power to control To primitive peoples, the practitioners of these advanced abilities seemed like gods or at least persons How did/do they maintain control of their power across the

Proctor & Gamble Co. Duracell brand batteries sit on display in a supermarket in Princeton, Illinois, U.S., on Wednesday, Oct. 23, 2013. Proctor & Gamble Co. is scheduled to report quarterly earnings on Friday, Oct. 25, 2013.© Daniel Acker/Bloomberg Proctor & Gamble Co. Duracell brand batteries sit on display in a supermarket in Princeton, Illinois, U.S., on Wednesday, Oct. 23, 2013. Proctor & Gamble Co. is scheduled to report quarterly earnings on Friday, Oct. 25, 2013. For an energy source that's been around for three decades, the lithium-ion battery is only just hitting its stride.

It’s worked its way up from primitive cellular phones to cameras and laptops before entering everyone’s pockets inside smartphones. But only now that the electric car has arrived is this energy storage system truly taking off. The latest proof: The electric-vehicle boom, which still in its early days, has already replaced gadgets as the world’s biggest source of lithium-ion battery demand.

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He will be discussing his book The Choice: Global Domination or Global Leadership. It may be undefined, it may point in different directions, it may be primitive , it may be intolerant, it may Where do you stand on the issue of how to use American military power , either in concert with allies or alone?

Chapter Twenty-Six: The Secret of Primitive Accumulation. We have seen how money is changed into capital; how through capital surplus-value is made, and from surplus-value more capital. power ; on the other hand, free labourers, the sellers of their own labour power , and therefore the sellers of labour.

“We are at an inflection point. Each year will beat the previous year,” said Ravi Manghani, a Boston-based storage analyst at GTM Research. “It’s definitely an ‘oh wow’ moment.”

The future of the battery is going to be driven by the car. Surging demand for lithium-ion batteries, boosted by uptake from automakers, has created efficiencies of scale that have sent prices plummeting. Last year alone, the price of battery packs fell 24 percent, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. These cost declines, in turn, are encouraging the continued expansion of battery power. Lithium-ion technology has begun popping up on electrical grids, scooters, ferries and airplanes—a proliferation that will only accelerate.

a screenshot of a cell phone: EVs Dominate Demand for Lithium-Ion Batteries© Bloomberg EVs Dominate Demand for Lithium-Ion Batteries

It’s all happened rather fast. Electric vehicles accounted for virtually zero lithium-ion demand a decade ago, said Christophe Pillot, a partner and director at Paris-based Avicenne Energy.

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Global demand for lithium-ion batteries is set to more than double by 2025. Have you read? Is graphene the future in battery design? The next supersonic airliner could be battery powered . The dark secret powering your smartphone.

The batteries first began appearing in electric vehicles in 2006. But it took until 2014, when automobiles accounted for nearly 15,000 megawatt-hours, for vehicles to exceed a 25 percent share of the world’s total lithium-ion supply, according to Avicenne data. Between 2014 and 2017, electric vehicles' use of lithium-ion more than quadrupled to more than 71,000 megawatt-hours, with a similar jolt forecast by 2023.

Electric vehicles reached 50 percent of lithium-ion demand in 2016, although it inched past consumer electronics for the first time the year prior, according to Avicenne data. With electric-vehicle sales rising and demand for smartphones slowing, the gap will only grow wider.

“One million cars consume the same amount of lithium-ion batteries as everything else,” Pillot said.

A chemist named Stanley Whittingham helped pioneer the rechargeable lithium-ion technology in the early 1970s while working for an unlikely battery booster: Exxon.

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John Wesley: Primitive Physick, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. And how is the number of these increased by every thing round about us! The power of exercise, both to preserve and restore health, is greater than can well be conceived; especially in those who add

The earliest toys bearing silicon boards were primitive , of course, but they were also quite expensive. In 1978, an electronic toy often went for around , an amount equivalent to Certainly, plenty of toys during this era didn't need batteries at all to sell, but energy and computing power certainly helped.

A reason: “The oil giant believed that in a few decades, most likely after the turn of the millennium, petroleum production would peak, and that the time to diversify was now,” wrote Seth Fletcher in a 2011 book, “Bottled Lightning,” about the birth of electric cars. At the time, lead-acid based rechargeable batteries were common.

Whittingham, who now teaches at the State University of New York at Binghamton, approached Exxon leaders for approval to proceed with battery research. “I gave an elevator speech to a subcommittee of the Exxon board of directors in New York City," he said in recent interview. "At that point, it was still conceptual. We had only built prototypes in the lab.”

In the 1980s, material scientist John Goodenough managed to increase the voltage, and therefore the energy density. “I asked myself, and I asked my student: How much lithium do you have to take out before the oxide changes its structure?” said Goodenough, who now teaches at the University of Texas at Austin. It turned out that more than half of the lithium could be removed without changing the structure. “That was enough to be interesting, so we published. But people said you won't get mobility.”

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Innovative thinking about a global world. Marx sometimes puts this point in a fairly teleological way, looking at primitive accumulation as a necessary step on the road to British capitalism. What does social class have to do with power ? The two concepts represent theories about how a modern

It already has a battery - powered car that goes 200 miles on a single charge – the Model S – but its ,000-plus price Italian scientist Alessandro Volta is widely considered the field’s founding father, having developed a primitive battery using metal discs and brine-soaked cardboard back in 1800.

a screenshot of a cell phone: Global Lithium-Ion Battery Sales© Bloomberg Global Lithium-Ion Battery Sales

These efficiencies helped bring lithium-ion batteries into cellular phones of the early 1990s, and then slowly into other consumer electronics. For most consumers, lithium-ion batteries are only noticed when their iPhone drains too fast. “It’s a technology that a lot of us consciously or unconsciously are comfortable with,” said GTM's Manghani.

That point of nonchalance hasn’t reached the automobile market yet, with sales of battery-powered vehicles still accounting for only 1.2 percent of auto sales worldwide. By 2025, however, BNEF predicts sales jumping almost tenfold to about 11 million.

Some governments, mindful of climate change and carbon-dioxide emissions, are taking steps to boost demand. California wants five million electric vehicles on the road by 2030, and the state is essentially mandating that automakers either sell EVs or pay for zero-emission credits. China wants 7 million electric cars onto the road by 2025 and modeled its electric-car mandate on California's program; BNEF expects China to account for nearly half of the global EV market by then.

Of course, there could be setbacks on the way to even cheaper batteries. Anything that dampens the global spread of electric cars—falling oil prices, a shortage of charging infrastructure, or policy changes in Europe, China or the U.S.—could spell trouble. Without a high volume of electric-vehicle sales, price forecasts for batteries may not be realized, said Yayoi Sekine, a BNEF analyst in New York.

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I don’t think hand- powered tools and utensils have ever really gone out of style. 21 Primitive Tools And How To Use Them Now. The power of primitive tools is starting to regain some popularity for many Drills – There is a variety of hand drills that are just as effective as the battery powered drills.

The battery ’s power limit of 2kW is sufficient to simultaneously run a fridge, brown toast and perhaps iron the shirts and but it is not ample enough to cook a meal on an electric stove, run the dryer or keep the air conditioner going . BU-103: Global Battery Markets.

But greater use will create a feedback loop, making batteries more competitive in other markets. “More batteries for electric vehicles will make for cheaper batteries,” said Logan Goldie-Scot, a San Francisco-based analyst at BNEF. “That means more batteries in more things.”

a close up of a black background: Bloomberg Best of the Year 2017© Bloomberg Bloomberg Best of the Year 2017

Falling costs will bring more batteries onto electrical grids as well as homes that have solar panels and buildings seeking backups during power outages. BNEF forecasts more than $100 billion will be invested in energy storage by 2030, transforming how grids operate.

“As the scale of the capacity and the whole supply chain for lithium-ion has increased, the costs have come way down,” said Stephen Coughlin, chief executive officer of Fluence, a joint venture of AES Corp. and Siemens AG that deploys storage for the grid. “We in the electric sector have benefited from all of this investment.”

It turns out that Exxon was right about the future of lithium-ion batteries—just not about how it would happen or when. There's now talk that demand for oil could peak in the next generation.

Instead, the rise of electric vehicles and renewable-energy sources may mean that some crude may stay in the ground. BP last year said battery-powered vehicles could flatten projected oil-demand growth from cars in the next 20 years if they become cool enough. The speed of that battery transformation owes a debt to the generations of consumer electronics that pushed lithium-ion technology forward.

“It’s been 30 years of gradual incremental improvements and then it took off,” said GTM's Manghani. “We started to move towards personal devices that had to rely on a lithium-ion based power supply, and then that snowballed into more companies manufacturing batteries.”

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