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Technology Contrary to most doomsday visions, climate change will probably make for smaller waves and calmer seas

20:40  14 june  2018
20:40  14 june  2018 Source:   popsci.com

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  Can Volcanic Eruptions Cause Changes in the Climate? The gases released after a volcanic eruption can enter the upper atmosphere and sometimes cause cooling of the Earth.When volcanoes like Hawaii’s Kilauea and Guatemala’s Fuego erupt, they spew ash, gas and other particles into the air, and those particles—big and small—can have an impact on the climate and environment.

We could prevent New York Magazine’s climate change doomsday scenario, but keep voting not to. These include widespread drought, mass species loss on land and sea , increase in the most extreme type of weather events globally (including heat waves and superstorms), sea -level rise

This is a " small " change , but a living environment is inherently more delicate than an artificial one. Conclusions by scientists are based on hard evidence contrary to the alarmists that are base solely on computer 3. Increased heat, causes sea water to turn into water vapor, which makes more clouds.

a man riding a wave on a surfboard in the water: a woman surfing © DepositPhotos a woman surfing

Catch the monster waves while you can.

As more and more greenhouse gases gather in Earth’s atmosphere, extreme weather is expected to rise. Wild weather like hurricanes drive big waves. So doesn’t that mean you’ll find some gnarly surfing opportunities before being inundated by Earth’s rising, churning oceans?

Mark Hemer has bad/good news for you. If you don’t live in Australia, the answer is likely no. A research scientist at CSIRO’s Ocean Atmosphere Climate Science Centre, Hemer studies waves for a living. And what would seem like a relatively relaxing gig can actually be a minefield of assumptions, missing data, and seemingly endless question marks.

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First thing’s first: Forget about the monster waves typically predicted in Day After Tomorrow-style doomsday scenarios. “People jump to the conclusion that waves will be bigger and more destructive,” Hemer says. But in the future, he explains, most people will find them to be anything but. He predicts that weather-fueled wave height increases will only occur in a tiny fraction of Earth’s oceans. Much of the rest of the world will likely see much shorter waves and calmer seas in the years to come—a bonus for shippers, not surfers.

“A large chunk of the global ocean is actually projected to have a decrease in wave height,” he says. “It’s really only the Southern Ocean that will have an increase.”

The spot where the southern parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans meet is home to a belt of westerly winds projected to expand southwards as the atmosphere and oceans warm up. More winds means taller waves, leading to potential erosion, loss of marine habitat, and human and property damage.

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The effects climate change could have on oceans, vulnerable animal species, sea level and human lifestyles. There will be a lot more days over 35°C. This means more heat waves and fires. A small change in average temperature can make a big difference to our lives.

Effects that scientists had predicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves .

Predicting how waves might act later is just part of Hemer’s challenging job. Wave science combines everything from climatology to engineering in an attempt to figure out how the heck waves work. It’s more complicated than you might think, because waves aren’t just ephemeral: They’re really hard to measure.

“They have their challenges,” says Hemer. That’s a characteristic understatement from a scientist who studies the disconcerting phenomena his discipline has charmingly dubbed “extreme waves.”

Your average ocean wave doesn’t start its life as a deadly wall of water. Instead, it begins as a ripple created by the friction between ocean and sky. Some ripples eventually crest, bursting into a wave. As the energy that powers the wave moves through the water, the surface rises and falls. When helped along by stormy weather, extreme waves, like a 78-foot-wave that recently became the tallest ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere, can form.

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At present, however, climate change ’s influence on hurricanes is probably too small to detect, Vecchi says, adding that Katrina’s wrath can’t be blamed on global warming. “The doomsday scenario is overblown, but Global security experts worry that continuing climate change will help spark more

The climate has always changed and most probably always will and has not been effected by the machine age. And if memory serves, there has been no Today’s doomsday prognosticators seem to have another agenda. There is money to be made in the global-warming business.

But for scientists, there’s a catch. Waves are tricky beasts, and hard to track and quantify. They appear randomly and last briefly, and unless you have a grasp on their history, you can’t know whether they’re actually becoming higher or more frequent. That’s even trickier because, well, who can track the history of ocean movements that last for seconds at a time?

“When you compare it to other climate variables, we really don’t have a good historical dataset,” Hemer says. Without a clear picture of the past, the word “extreme” means nothing, and it’s tough to figure out where things might go from here.

“Historical” is relative when it comes to waves. Humans have watched waves for millennia, but they’ve only recorded them from the ocean with any degree of consistency for 45 years or so. Satellites can observe waves, too, by sending radar down from orbit and measuring the height of the ocean surface. But they’ve only been doing that for about 30 years. Though parts of the world are home to robust networks of buoys that measure things like wind, sea temperature, ocean direction, and speed, they’re not that old. And though historical sailors recorded some data about waves of yore, it’s hard to turn their observations into real data.

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Just in the past two years, I’ve written about how global warming will probably cause more mega-droughts in Arizona and New Mexico; how dangerously sweltering It’s a scary vision —which is okay, because climate change is scary. In short, there are plenty of doomsday scenarios to worry about.

Climate Change . It’s a terrible problem – or it’s really not as bad as people say. In 1883 Krakatoa erupted and changed the climate for more than a year. The weather The seas . There will be longer heat waves in Europe, the United States, and East Asia.

So how can wave scientists make confident predictions?

“We don’t, really,” Hemer mourns. Without a good dataset, predicting future wave behavior is the definition of an educated guess.

COWCLIP, or the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project, is an attempt to make the guess a bit more likely to succeed. Hemer helped found the project, which is engaged in the grisly work of hashing out a standardized historical picture of waves’ past. The aim, of course, is to make their future clearer. After the group IDs a standardized dataset, it will use the info to create ongoing wave projections that can help assess climate change.

If Hemer has anything to do with it, the data could also help slow climate change down. He sees waves as a source of renewable energy for Australia. Right now, wave energy is expensive and inefficient. But a better understanding of waves could change that. In an attempt to help, he and colleagues developed a wave energy atlas—an online resource that uses complex wave modeling to help people choose the best spots for power projects. Waves probably won’t save us (Australia, the recipient of all those sick waves, consumes a fraction of the amount of energy used by, say, the United States). But perhaps they could help tip the balance between sink and swim.

Rains from Tropical Storm Carlotta pound Mexico's coast .
Heavy rains from Tropical Storm Carlotta pounded Mexico's Pacific coast east of Acapulco ahead of its expected landfall late Saturday or early Sunday.&nbsp;Load Error

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