Technology What Happens When You Heat Moon Rocks to 1,400 Degrees?

01:20  10 august  2017
01:20  10 august  2017 Source:   The Atlantic

Lunar 'sandbox' helps robots see in harsh moon lighting

  Lunar 'sandbox' helps robots see in harsh moon lighting <p>The moon has no shades of gray.</p>With no atmosphere to scatter and reflect lighting, "what you get on the Moon are dark shadows and very bright regions that are directly illuminated by the Sun -- the Italian painters in the Baroque period called it chiaroscuro," says NASA Ames computer scientist Uland Wong. That's a conundrum for surface probes, "because cameras don't have the sensitivity to see the details that you need to detect a rock or crater," he adds.

To investigate this mystery, they keep turning back to the moon rocks . That’s how Sonia Tikoo found herself heating one of them to 1 ,436 degrees Fahrenheit (780 degrees Celsius) in a lab chamber.

What happens when you heat a gas from 0 to 100 degrees celsius? It depends on the circumstances, if the gas is in a flexible container and the pressure exerted on the gas is constant throughout the heating the it's volume will increase.

  What Happens When You Heat Moon Rocks to 1,400 Degrees? © NASA

In the 1970s, scientists subjected newly arrived samples of moon rocks to a barrage of tests. To their surprise, they discovered that some of the rocks were magnetic. When magma cooled and solidified into these rocks, the material had been exposed to a magnetic field. Which was strange because, as far as scientists knew at the time, the moon didn’t have a global magnetic field like the one that envelops Earth, then or ever. But the rocks suggested otherwise, and many studies of the samples since have shown that the moon indeed had a magnetic field billions of years ago, perhaps one as strong as Earth’s today.

Spot the Moon and Saturn Together Tonight!

  Spot the Moon and Saturn Together Tonight! <p>This evening (Aug. 2) brings another opportunity to identify what many consider to be the most beautiful of all telescopic objects: the ringed planet Saturn. As we have noted previously, as it appears to the naked eye, Saturn does not present any outstanding features. It lacks the dazzling, eye-popping brilliance of Venus or Jupiter, and it does not have the fiery orange-yellow color of Mars.</p>In fact, to the naked eye, Saturn appears to be nothing more than a very bright "star" that shines with a yellowish-white glow. People looking around the current summertime sky might take note of Saturn while gazing toward the southern part of the sky about an hour after sundown.

Can rocks be heated by pressurizing them? What happens when heating glycerin? What happens if you heat Silica Gel past 300 degrees Celsius? How can you create a very hot heat source over 1000 degrees C?

There's only one group of people who really know what happens when you die: the dead. The first stage of this process is known as clinical death. It lasts from four to six minutes, beginning when a person stops breathing and the heart stops pumping blood.

man holding credit cards
Trending Now: Top 7 Cards For Excellent Credit
See The Top Cards
Sponsored by NextAdvisor

Scientists don’t know exactly how long it lasted and why it disappeared. To investigate this mystery, they keep turning back to the moon rocks.

That’s how Sonia Tikoo found herself heating one of them to 1,436 degrees Fahrenheit (780 degrees Celsius) in a lab chamber.

The rock in question was collected by the Apollo 15 crew in 1971 from the southern rim of a crater called Dune. The rock, known as glassy regolith breccia 15498, is composed of basalt shards, partially covered in melted glass, and dates back 1 billion to 2.5 billion years. Igneous rocks, both on Earth and the moon, contain minerals that can preserve properties of an ambient magnetic field that exists at the time they form. When the lunar rock cooled from a molten state, grains of metallic iron inside recorded the magnetization around it. Heating up the rock again forces it to give up this hidden information.

Heat in S Asia could exceed survivable levels by 2100: study

  Heat in S Asia could exceed survivable levels by 2100: study <p>South Asia, home to one-fifth of the world's population, could see humid heat rise to unsurvivable levels by century's end if nothing is done to halt global warming, researchers said Wednesday.</p>The study in the journal Science Advances warned of "summer heat waves with levels of heat and humidity that exceed what humans can survive without protection.

When you add up during the daylight hours just how much heating this surface gets, it receives most of its heating from The ages of the Moon rocks , many of which were formed by later meteor collisions, tells us the history of how often big meteors fall. Part of the rocky tail accretes to make the Moon .

What will happen at -50 degrees Celsius? every thing will become ice , for example , throwing hot What is the specific heat capacity of a 50 gram piece of 100 degrees celsius metal that will change 400 grams of 20 degrees celsius What happens to water when you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius?

“Because magnetization is acquired by temperature-related processes, it follows that it can also be removed by temperature-related processes,” Tikoo, a planetary science professor at Rutgers University in New Jersey, explained in an email. “We can heat the rocks progressively in a zero magnetic field environment to increasing temperatures and measure how the rock's magnetization changes after each heating step.”

As the temperature crept higher, Tikoo and her fellow researchers tracked how the intensity of the magnetization changed using an instrument called a magnetometer. They stopped at 1,436 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the maximum temperature at which metallic iron can preserve magnetism. Anything higher, and the rock loses its magnetization completely.

Researchers have exposed lunar rocks to extreme heat in the past, a process that, if things go awry, could lead to chemical changes in the samples, Tikoo said. One of the researchers built a heating environment that mimicked closely the conditions under which the rock formed to prevent any damaging effects. Still, they were nervous.

Lunar nanobots could bring AR gaming to the moon

  Lunar nanobots could bring AR gaming to the moon Would you like to play a game on the moon? A new business concept could let Earth-bound gamers play with nanobots on the lunar surface.Lunatix, a company created by a team of space engineers, developed a camera-equipped, jumping nanobot that would be used in augmented reality scenarios on the moon. Gamers would control the robots from Earth, though they'd experience slight delays as the signals travel to the moon and back.

When the moon is waxing what happens to the moon ? It appears to get bigger until it becomes a full moon , then it wanes. Answered. In Chemistry. What happens when you burn wax?

What happens to Rock Salt when heat and pressure is applied? well nothing at all :P. I heated epsom salt in the oven at 275 degrees Fahrenheit for 20 min. It got a bit bigger and white. Epsom salt doesn't release poisonous gas and isn't poisonous…, and it also doesn't explode.

“We were very concerned about accidentally destroying the sample and would monitor our heating experiments very closely to make sure all aspects of the heating process were taking place smoothly,” Tikoo said.

Scientists estimate the moon’s magnetic field existed between 4.25 billion years ago and 3.56 billion years ago, when the solar system was young. Tikoo and her fellow researchers say that their new analysis of the Apollo moon rock’s magnetic intensity suggests that the field may have persisted for 1 billion to 2.5 billion years longer than that. Their findings are described in a paper published Wednesday in Science Advances.

Scientists don’t know when the moon’s magnetic field vanished, nor do they fully understand what powered it in the first place. Earth’s magnetic field, which stretches several tens of thousands of miles into space, is generated by the constant churning of liquid metal at the planet’s molten core. This constant motion is known as a dynamo. The existence of a magnetic field on the moon means a similar dynamo was at work. Scientists believe that because of the moon’s small size relative to Earth’s, a molten core would have cooled off quickly. But if it were powered by this process alone, the lunar dynamo would have shut down in a matter of a few hundred million years—not a billion or more years, like the moon rocks suggest.

Iraqi weather service warns of brutal heat wave next week

  Iraqi weather service warns of brutal heat wave next week Iraq's weather service warned Thursday that temperatures will increase next week in most parts of the country.The country typically faces brutal heat in the summers and endemic electricity outages make life even harder when temperatures soar. Those who can, escape to cooler spots in neighboring countries, while those who can't afford a trip abroad stay indoors or go swimming in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

This video has been making its rounds on the internet, and most media organizations are saying that it portrays men being tricked into catcalling their mothers. The reactions are even worse than what you 'd expect. Advertisement.

What would happen if the Moon were replaced with an equivalently-massed black hole? It's a tiny difference—small fractions of a degree —but it's there. When the Moon is half-illuminated, you might think it would be half as bright as when full—but it's much less bright than that.

So scientists must consider alternative causes for a lunar dynamo. Tikoo said the moon’s core, which is mostly iron, may contain other, lighter elements—like sulfur and carbon—that could have contributed to the dynamo’s power source and its duration. As the moon’s molten core cooled and solidified over billions of years, leftover liquid kept swirling, buoyed by light elements. The heat that escaped the core during the cooling process, combined with the rising of this remaining liquid, could have powered the magnetic field for a longer period.

Other scientists point to an ancient interaction between the moon’s liquid core and its mantle, the layer between the core and the surface. The core and the mantle may have rotated at slightly different angles, producing movement that swirled the core’s liquid metal. Over time, the angle narrowed and weakened the forces responsible for the dynamo, causing the magnetic field to disappear.

The study of magnetic fields beyond Earth has implications for the search for habitable worlds elsewhere in the universe. Without a magnetic field to protect a planet or a moon from solar wind and cosmic radiation, life as we know it on Earth could not exist. The invisible shield prevents solar wind—streams of charged particles from the sun—from eroding away Earth’s atmosphere and water. Mars once had its own magnetic field, as a young planet about 4 billion years ago, along with a thick atmosphere capable of supporting liquid water. But the shield ceased to exist as Mars cooled, and nearly all of its atmosphere was stripped away.

Nearly 50 years after they arrived on Earth, the Apollo moon rocks are still indispensable to lunar science, small representatives of a close neighbor researchers are still trying to understand. The rocks have both answered longstanding questions and revealed new mysteries about the moon’s origins and evolution. NASA receives dozens of applications for use of the samples in research each year. As their study continues, the rocks may give up more secrets still.

South Korea Will Prevent War at All Costs, President Moon Says .
South Korean President Moon Jae-in said that any military action against Kim Jong Un’s regime requires his nation’s approval, and vowed to prevent war at all costs. “There will be no war repeated on the Korean Peninsula,” Moon said in a speech on Tuesday marking the anniversary of the end of Japanese occupation in the 1940s. Military action against North Korea should be decided by “ourselves and not by anyone else,” he said.While Moon said that South Korea would work with the U.S. to counter security threats, he emphasized the need to focus on diplomatic efforts.

—   Share news in the SOC. Networks

Topical videos:

This is interesting!