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US For poor and minority children, excessive air pollution creates a toxic learning environment

00:55  04 march  2018
00:55  04 march  2018 Source:   pri.org

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SCHOOLS-raising_hands.jpg. Students’ intelligence and ability to learn is negatively impacted by exposure to air pollution . Credit In the US, low-income and minority children are disproportionately stuck in schools with poor air quality, according to the study.

The effects of air pollution on learning could occur through other channels as well. • Almost 300 million children live in areas where outdoor air pollution is toxic – exceeding six times international limits. 49. Katz, Cheryl, ‘ Minorities , Poor Breathe Worse Air Pollution , Study Finds’

a group of young children sitting next to a child © Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Agency for American Education: Images of Teachers and Students in Actio...

School is supposed to be a safe environment, but a recent study in the journal Environmental Research has found that at many public schools, children are being exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants. Out of nearly 90,000 public schools studied, only 728 had the safest possible score.

The study found the five worst polluted areas included New York, Chicago and Pittsburgh, as well as Camden and Jersey City, based on air quality measurements of more than a dozen neurotoxins.

The researchers looked at a variety of chemical pollutants, such as lead, mercury, toluene, manganese and polychlorinated biphenyls, which come from sources like industrial activities, combustion engines, refining, waste incineration and mining.

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Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst It creates a smog type formation in the air that has been linked to many lung diseases and disruptions to the natural environment and animals.

“There's evidence that when you inhale these types of toxins, they gain entry to the body and then the body mounts an immune response which causes swelling, and this neuroinflammation in the brain leads to the damage of neural tissues,” says study lead author Sara Grineski, a professor of sociology and environmental studies at the University of Utah.

“[This has] been linked to autism, ADHD and, later in life, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease,” she notes. “All kinds of neurological conditions are starting to be traced back to having an environmental component to their origins.”

This exposure can affect kids for the rest of their lives, Grineski emphasizes. “This neurological impact is so subtle and so insidious that it's hard to even know if your child has been affected or is being affected,” she says. “You wouldn't know if their math score would have been a little higher if they lived in a different neighborhood.”

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A new study published this week shows that both race and class are significant indicators of how much toxic air pollution individuals face in the United States with minorities receiving nearly 40% more exposure to deadly airborne pollutants than whites.

Therefore poor ventilation of air and overcrowding conditions are creating more favorable situation to the transmission of pollutants . Central nervous system effects, and possibly learning disabilities in children , may result from accumulated body burdens of lead, where air pollution contributes a large

The effect on these young, developing brains can be profound. Grineski points to a study done by Dr. Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas at the University of Montana. Dr. Calderón-Garcidueñas performed autopsies on children in Mexico who had died in traffic accidents. The brains of children who came from rural areas looked as one would expect, Grineski explains, while the brains of children from highly polluted areas like Mexico City show signs of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.

In the US, low-income and minority children are disproportionately stuck in schools with poor air quality, according to the study. Schools with a higher percentage of African American, Latino and Asian children had significantly higher levels of the neurotoxicants in the area surrounding their schools, Grineski says.

“It's a pretty strong pattern,” she notes. “It’s statistically significant, and it's quite notable that students from these racial, ethnic, minority backgrounds and also students who are poor, face higher levels of these air toxins at their schools. So, there's clearly an injustice present that … is reflective of broader issues related to racial and class discrimination in the country.”

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It affects 250,000 New York children and is especially common among minority children . Indoor and outdoor air pollution are now established as causes of asthma. The National Academy of Sciences studied the issue of children ’s unique sensitivity to toxic chemicals in the environment and

Environmental Illness - Toxic Chemicals in Our Environment . Poor ventilation that restricts fresh air flow inside can be a cause of sick building syndrome. Outdoor air pollution . Polluted air comes from many sources, such as factories, cars, buses, trucks, and power plants. Difficulty working, learning , or doing complex tasks.

Schools are often located on cheap land, Grineski points out, and cheap land is often found in areas near major freeways or hazardous sites. Only 10 US states have a policy in place to prohibit locating schools in areas that are known to be environmentally hazardous. The other 40 states and Washington, DC, don't have a policy at all.

Perhaps most disturbing, schools serving prekindergarten students had even higher levels of pollution than elementary schools, Grineski adds.

“It's quite surprising [and] depressing,” she says. “We know that children are more vulnerable to air pollution than adults. They have less developed lungs. They spend more time outside. They consume greater quantities of oxygen per body weight. So, their exposure is higher and the consequences are likely greater because they are developing and they are changing and their cells are growing so fast. It's not a happy finding that we have our youngest students facing high levels of exposure.”

This article is based on an interview that aired on PRI’s Living on Earth with Steve Curwood.

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